comprehensive timelines of instrument development, repertoire, pedagogy and performers









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© Kayla Nelson 2007        for individual use only

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  1545 the first mention of the horn's use in a purely musical context: in Susato's "Battles, Hunts and Bird-Songs" (F, 2)*

1633 Michelangelo Rossi's opera Erminio sul Giordana-earliest use of horn in theatre (T, 13)

1639 Cavalli's opera Le nozze di Teti e di Peleo in Venice (M-P, 13)

1654 Cavalli's Le Nozze performed in Paris (F, 6)

1664 Lully's divertissement-ballet La Princesse d'Elide in Versailles (M-P, 13)

1670 unknown Bohemian master writes a Sonata da caccia con un corno (J/B, 39)

1680-82 Count Franz Anton von Sporck travels to Versailles and is exposed to the sounds of the hunting horn (J/B, 36)

1680 beginning of Bohemian school of horn playing with Rolig & Sweda's first lessons on the hunting horn (F,16)

1680 probable invention of the traditional French cor de chasse (H, 27)

1682 earliest extant horns made by Haas of Nürnberg (F, 21)

pre-1700 Johann Beer Concerto a 4 (B, 154)

c. 1700 changes to horn: wider bore size; more conical; funnel-shaped mouthpiece (J/B, 45)

c.1700 Johannes & Michael Leichamschneider in Vienna compress single-coil horn into 2-coiled horn (J/B, 45)

1700 Leichnamschneider brothers begin making the master crook and coupler system (H, 28)

1700 horns integral part of orchestra in Carlo Agostino Badia's opera Diana rappacificata con Venere e con Amore in Vienna (H, 8)

1703 earliest extant reference to crooks, in a bill from M. Leichnamschneider (F, 32)

1704 first record of Bohemian players traveling to London (F, 51)

1704 Klingenberg's aria "Die Singende Liebe" for bass, 2 horns, 2 oboes, bsn & continuo (F,52)

1705 Buxtehude's Templum Honoris - first full-scale cantata to call for a chorus of horns (F, 54)

1705 2 horns included in Reinhard Keiser's opera Octavia -first German score to use horn (F, 42)

1706 first recorded engagement of a horn player as a permanent member of a court orch: Johann Theodorus Zeddelmayer @ Weissenfels (F, 54)

1708 Morin's La chasse du cerf (B, 155)

1708 Jean-Baptiste Morin includes horn fanfares in his ballet-divertissement La chasse du cerf (J/B, 38)

1708 earliest record of horns & oboes played together in a ballet ensemble in The Marriage of Alexander & Roxana (F,22)

1708 Handel writes for horns in Naples Serenata, "Aci, Galatea e Polifemo" (F, 69)

1711 Handel's Rinaldo (F, 69)

1711 Dresden hires two horn players: Fischer & Samm (J/B, 51)

1712 Vienna hires two horn players: Rossi & Otto (J/B, 51)

1712 Christoph Graupner in Darmstadt begins regularly writing for horns in the orchestra (H, 8)

1713 Johann Mattheson article on horn in Das neu-eroffnete Orchestre confirms horn's popular musical use; first description of the horn as an orchestral instrument (H2, 102; F, 60)

1713 Bach uses horn in Weimer cantata Was mir behagt, BWV 208 (H, 8)

1714 four horns join royal orchestra @ Naples (F, 63)

1715 Johann Joseph Fux's opera Elisa (F, 60)

1715 first Italian use of horn in opera in Alesandro Scarlatti's Tigrane (H2, 105)

1716 Bach's Jagdkantate, BWV 205 (M-P, 140)

1717 first use of horns in the orch. in England - Handel's Water Music (H, 11)

1717 early experimenting with hand stopping in Dresden as early as this year (H, 9)

1718 Scarlatti's Telemaco (F, 70)

1718 court at Darmstadt hires 2 horn players (J/B, 52)

1720s at the latest, use of hand horn technique (H1, 122-3)

1720 Handel's first indoor use of horns in Radamisto (H2, 105)

1721 Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 1

1723 Johann Adolf Hasse's opera Tigrane (F, 65)

1724 Handel's Giulio Cesare

c.1725 horns adopted by military bands in Germany (F, 221)

1728 Sebastian Bodinus writes 4-part chamber sonatas for hunting horn, flute, violin & basso continuo (J/B, 49)

1728 one of the first concert appearances of horn in France (M-P, 16)

1730 Johann Adolf Hasse's opera Cleofide (F, 65)

1732 earliest reference to horn in C basso in Joseph Majer's Museum musicum (H1, 118)

1733 John Walsh publishes Forest Harmony, a collection of horn duets (H, 14)

1733 first performance of Bach's Quoniam from Mass in B-minor, BWV 232 (H, 80)

1736 Francesco Durante's oratorio Abigaile: early use of stopped notes (F, 65)

1740 earliest dated example of new (2nd horn) style of writing in Johann Georg Pisendel's additions to a violin concerto by Franz Benda (H2,108)

1740 earliest dated work with factitious tones in the horn writing - concerto for violin in D by F. Benda, with horn parts edited & annotated by J.G. Pisendel (H1, 124)

1746 publication of The Compleat Tutor for the French horn by John Simpson (M-P, 76)

1749 Handel's Music for the Royal Fireworks

1750 first manufacture of the Inventionshorn by Dresden maker Johann Werner (H, 28)

1750 by this year, clarino playing had almost ceased to exist (C1, 28)

1750s Hampel introduces hand-stopping technique (M-P, 20)

1750s horn concerti by Franz Xaver Pokorny (K, 3)

1751 organization of Russian horn band for court of the Empress Elizabeth by J.A. Maersch (C1, 23)

1754 crooked horns catch on in Paris (F, 72)

1755 Leopold Mozart's Sinfonia di Camera, which includes a difficult horn part ascending to the twenty-second harmonic of the horn in D (M-P, 84)

1755 Isaak Eschenbach establishes a successful horn-building business in Markneukirchen (H, 40)

c.1755 2nd horn players were gradually adopting right hand technique (F, 126)

1756 2nd edition of The Compleat Tutor published by Peter Thompson (M-P, 76)

1756 Manheim Kapelle hires 4 horn players (J/B, 52)

1757 opera by Gossec using horns in the accompaniment of an aria: the first to do so in France (C2, 25)

1759 a regular pair of horns in the Paris Opera (M-P, 16)

1760 earliest attempt to make a horn chromatic by mechanical means by Kolbel's Amor-Schall (M-P, 26)

1760s central tuning slide added to horn (F, 229)

1760s most orchestral & wind ensemble music calls for a pair of horns, cor alto & cor basso (H, 11)

1760s to 1830s most Central European courts had Harmonies: small bands of wind players with 2 horns, 2 bsns & 2 clarinets or oboes (H, 15)

1762 Haydn's Horn Concerto no.1 Hob.VIId:3

1763 regular horn employment in Paris (J/B, 52)

1763/5 Rodolphe introduces hand stopping to Paris audience (M-P, 89)

1764 earliest description of hand stopping in Valentin Roeser's Essai d'Instruction (B, 159)

1764 first mention of low-register factitious tones in a treatise: Roeser's Essai d'Instruction (H1, 125)

1765-70 first appearance of the Orchesterhorn (F, 139)

1767 Haydn's Divertimento a tre per il corno di caccia for horn in E-flat, violin & cello: horn part covers an enormous range (M-P, 85)

1770-1 Punto intoduces hand stopping to an English audience while visiting London (M-P, 86)

1769 Mozart's earliest writing utilizing stopped notes in Serenade in D Major, K.100 (H2, 110)

1772 Mozart's D-Major Serenade, K.131, first solo horn quartet in orchestral context (F, 184)

1773 Spandau introduces hand stopping to an English audience (F, 167)

1776 Johann Gottfried Haltenhof of Hanau am Main builds horn with double mouthpipe (J/B, 70)

1776 J.G. Haltenhof introduces the tuning slide to the Inventionshorn (H, 29)

1778 publication of hunting fanfares by Marc-Antoine Dampierre, written decades earlier (J/B, 43)

1778 Punto travels to France (C1, 9)

1780 Parisian manufacturers Joseph & Lucien-Joseph Raoux make the "cor solo" with standard crooks G,F,E,Eb,D (H, 29)

1780 female hornist Beate Pokorny performs Punto's Horn Concerto in D in Paris (J/B, 69)

1780s Mozart horn concerti

1780s virtually all European orchestras have horns on permanent staff (J/B, 52)

1781 Carl Thürrschmidt improves Orchesterhorn by crossing tubes before bending them (F, 139)

1781 Thürrschmidt designs a cor de chasse with Raoux (F, 175)

1781 Haydn's Horn Concerto no. 2 Hob.VIId:4

1784 Founding of the Ecole Royale de Chant  et de Declamation, a school which contributed much to the French school of horn playing (C2, 1)

1788 Charles Clagget patents a "chromatic French horn" (M-P, 26)

1795 Heinrich Domnich appointed horn prof. @ Paris Conservatoire (H, 10)

1795 Carl Thürrschmidt improves Hampl's non-transposing mute by allowing for stopping via a ball on a rod (F, 175)

1797 detailed description of hand-stopping appears in tutor by Othon Vandenbroek (H, 51)

1800 Beethoven Horn Sonata

1800 Parisian maker Wendel Sandhas improves process of curving conical tubes with use of molton lead (J/B, 32)

1800 manufacture of terminal crooks for each key in France (H, 29)

1803 Beethoven's Third Symphony

1803 Cherubini's opera Anacreon - huge horn solo (C1, 61)

1803 publication of Duvernoy's Methode pour le Cor (M-P, 96)

1806 Beethoven's Fidelio

1807 publication of The Instrumental Assistant, vol II by Samuel Holyoke: early American tutor that includes instructions and music for horn (S2, 160-1)

1807 publication of Heinrich Domnich's Methode de Premier et de Second Cor (H, 52)

1807 Domnich credits Hampl with the discovery and development of hand stopping in his tutor (H, 10)

1810 publication of Joseph Frohlich's Hornschule (F, 179-80)

1811 Franz Joseph Frohlich publishes instruction book (H, 52)

1811 hornist Christian Dikhuth applies a short trombone-like slide to the horn, an attempt to make the instrument chromatic (E1, 64)

1811-2 Friedrich Bluhmel begins experiments with what were apparently valves (E4, 36)

1813 Viennese trumpeter Anton Weidinger designs a keyed horn (E1, 65)

1813 A keyed horn by Schugt (E1, 65)

1814 one of the earliest peformances of a wind quintet, by Reicha (H, 17)

1814 Heinrich Stoelzel invents a valve which he applies to the horn (E4, 35)

1815 first omnitonic horn invented by J.B.Dupont in Paris (M-P, 57)

1815 Heinrich Stölzel performs in Berlin on his newly-invented valve horn, built by Griessling & Schlott (H, 32)

1815 fist published notice of the invention of the valved horn in an article by Gottleb Benedikt Biery in Allegmeine musikalische (E4, 35)

1817-23 Beethoven's 9th Symphony

1818 Heinrich Stölzel & Freidrich Blühmel patent the valve in Berlin (M-P, 30)

1818 Dupont patents an improved model of omnitonic horn (M-P, 57)

1818 Concertino for 3 natural horns & 1 chromatic horn by Georg Abraham Schneider (E4, 37)

1819 publication of Ezekial Goodale's The Instrumental Director, an early American tutor that includes info for horn (S2, 161)

1819 A.F. Sattler of Leipzig adds a 3rd valve and transfers valve location to left hand (J/B, 77)

1819 Concerto for 3 horns, including 1 valve horn by Lenss (E1, 74)

1820 from this year, a section of four horns was standard (C2, 125)

1822 J.H. Göroldt's Hornschule published (H, 52)

1823 first recorded solo performance on a valve horn; by Glazemann in Berlin (M-P, 105)

1823 Joseph Riedl and Joseph Kail of Vienna patent the Vienna valve, a piston valve (E3, 2)

1824 John Shaw (England) patents a different valve design - "Transverse Spring Slides" (M-P, 35)

1824 Charles Sax designs an omnitonic horn in Brussels (J/B, 71)

1824 publication of Louis-François Dauprat's Methode de Cor Alto et Cor Basse (M-P, 97)

1826 valved instruments introduced in France (M-P, 32)

1826 omnitotonic horn built on compensating principle patented in France by Stuckens, significantly including a water-key (M-P, 57)

1826 the Lewy brothers perform joint valve horn recitals (E2, 24)

1827 Schubert's Nachtgesang im Walde, for 4 male voices & horn quartet, probably for at least one valve horn, written for the Lewy brothers (E, 8)

1827 Meifred & Jacques-Charles Labbaye produce a prize-winning improved valve horn (M-P, 33)

1827 Meifred adds tuning slides to individual valve tubes (S, 6)

1827 Blühmel attempts to patent new valve design - probably the first with rotary action (M-P, 37)

1827 Dauprat obtains a square-valved horn made by Schuster but finds it ineffectual (M-P, 33-4)

1827 Stoezel applies for a reinstatement of his patent, citing the slowness of the valve's acceptance (E1, 74)

1828 publication of Traite pour le Cor a Pistons by Dauprat in Paris (S1, 7)

1828 first recorded solo performance on a Meifred valve horn (S1, 7)

1828 Meifred introduces the valve horn to Paris (M-P, 71)

1828 Schubert's Auf dem Strom, one of the earliest delibrate compositions for valve horn (E, 11)

1828 Gioacchino Rossini composes "Grande fanfare pour quatre cors a la Dampierre," Le rendez-vous de chasse (J/B, 43-4)

1828 development of the Berlin valve by Wilhelm Wieprecht of Berlin, used infrequently on horns (E3, 5)

1829 Viennese bandmaster Andreas Nemetz's Hornschule published (H, 52)

1829 book by Meifred, mostly for composers The Range, Use & Resources of the Horn in General and its Crooks in Particular (E3, 12)

1830 A-flat added to standard set of crooks of B-flat Alto, A, G, E & E-flat (M-P, 22)

1830 Leopold Uhlmann's Vienna valves are patented (H, 32)

1830 first English manufacture of valve horns by Pace (H, 39)

1830 omnitonic horns by Deshays, Stukkens & Meifred (J/B, 71)

1832 tutor by Jacqmin (H, 52)

1832 Joseph Riedl of Vienna gets patent for his Rad-Maschine, a rotary valvee (M-P, 39-41)

1832 by this year, transposition was an accepted practice, judging by a discussion in the revised edition of Domnich's Methode (E, 6)

1832-3 Kopprasch 60 Etudes published (E6, 17)

1833 Valve-horn class instituted at Paris Conservatoire with Meifred (M-P, 6)

1834 Meifred & Deshays patent "valvules" but they are never put on the market (M-P, 47)

1835 piston valve improved by Wieprecht w/ Berlin maker G.W. Moritz - "Berliner Pumpen" (M-P, 44)

1835 Halary invents a disk valve (M-P, 45)

1835 Joseph Riedl designs rotary valve (H, 33)

1835 tutor by Mengel (H, 52)

1835 Jacques Havély's opera La Juive - first to call expressly for 4 valve horns (J/B, 94)

1837 Berlioz Requiem - scored for eight horns 

1838 John Shaw patents his "swivel valves for brass instruments" (M-P, 44)

1839 François Périnet invents piston valve, an improved version of the 1828 Berlin valve (E3, 5)

c.1840 Gounod's Six Mélodies for valve horn & piano (H, 19)

1840 Charles Tully's Tutor for the French Horn (H, 28)

1840 Meifred's Methode pour le cor chromatique ou a pistons - first comprehensive valve horn tutor (E, 212)

1840 two songs with horn obligato by František Škroup published in Prague - probably for valve horn (H, 24)

1840 Kastner publishes a valve horn tutor (H, 52)

1842 Gallay appointed prof. @ Paris Conseratoire; subsequent publication of his tutor Méthode pour le Cor (M-P, 100)

1845 Guiseppe Pelitti invents an omnitonic horn (H, 38)

1845 Guonod publishes a valve horn tutor (H, 52)

1845 Haumuller publishes a valve horn tutor (H, 52)

1845 Gallay publishes tutor (H, 52)

1845 omnitonic horn designs by Cerveny & Gautrot (J/B, 71)

1846 Invention of the Cornon, an ancestor to the Wagner tuba, in Koniggratz by Červeny (H, 41)

1847 P.L. Gautrot patents his first omnitonic horn (M-P, 60)

1848 Wagner's Lohengrin: horn writing suggests the use of valves as quick crook-changing devices (E4, 39)

1849 Jules Halary makes horn with ascending 3rd valve (M-P, 35)

1849 publication of Meifred's 1840 tutor revised for 3-valve horn (E, 212)

1849 Schumann's Adagio und Allegro

1850 Schumann's Konzertstuck

1850 publication of etude book by J.R. Lewy, including exercises which use the valves as crook-changing devices (E3, 14)

1851 "Radius French horn": an omnitonic horn designed by John Callcott in England (M-P, 61)

1852 Urbin publishes a valve horn tutor: the first for the three-valved horn (C2, 123)

1854 Gautrot patents horn combining omnitonic system with 3 valves (M-P, 62)

1854 Saint-Saens' Andante for valve horn and organ (H, 19)

1855 Perinet "perfects" the trompe de chasse (M-P, 48)

1855 Blanc publishes tutor (H, 52)

1857 Higham of Manchester patents direct-acting cranks w/ piston-like action (M-P, 41)

1857 Rossini's Prélude, Thème et Variations in cor mixte style (H, 19)

1858 Valves with dual windways made on the compensator principle invented in Paris (M-P, 49)

1860 Ligner invents the tenor cor (H, 42)

1862 a type of valve called "finger slides" patented by Samson (M-P, 47)

1863 valve-horn class at Paris Conservatoire discontinued (M-P, 6)

1864 Gautrot & Marquat in France patent a device called "systeme equitonique" -early compensating system (M-P, 49)

1865 Franz Stauss Concerto

1865 an early compensating system is patented in England under name of Brooks (M-P, 49)

1865 Brahms Trio in Eb, op. 40 

1865 H.Kling publishes Hornschule (M-P, 112)

1866 Schreiber Cornet Manufacturing Co. of New York patents string-action valve (M-P, 41)

1868 Brahms hears alphorn playing what will become horn solo in finale of 1st symphony (J/B, 22)

1869 E. Ford patents system with trombone-like slides operated by finger buttons (M-P, 48)

c.1870 Wagner has first Wagner tubas built (J/B, 96)

1871 Mohr publishes tutor, significantly for the hand horn (H, 52)

1870s Gautrot makes what is probably the last design of an omnitonic horn (M-P, 61)

1874 Wagner's Götterdämmerung

1875 first complete performance of Wagner's Ring Cycle (H, 41)

1878 Lagard publishes tutor (H, 52)

1880 London publication of Grande Methode: combined content of Dauprat/Gallay/Meifred tutors (H, 22)

1880 pub. of  Oscar Franz's Grosse theoretisch-practische Waldhorn-Schule (E3, 23)

1881 publication of Kling's Twenty-five Studies and Preludes (E3, 20)

1883 Gumbert makes F-alto/descant horn (B, 226)

1883 Josef Schantl founds the Wiener Waldhorn Verein to preserve & promelgate the sound of the Vienna horn (H, 38)

1883 Richard Strauss Concerto no.1

1886-8 Cesar Franck's Symphony - 4 valve horn parts (H, 20)

1887 Saint-Saens Morceau de Concert, Op. 94, probably first performed on an omnitonic horn (H, 34)

1890 Glazunov's Reverie, op. 24

1897 compensating double horn by Gumbert (B, 224)

1897 first prototype of double horn developed by Kruspe (E3, 9)

1897 valve-horn class at Paris Conservatoire reinstated (M-P, 6)

1898 double horn put on market by Gumpert/Kruspe (M-P, 51)

1899 Anton Horner becomes first prominent player in U.S. to use a double horn (M-P, 54)

1900 Kruspe improves double horn by replacing two valves with one for F-B-flat change (M-P, 5)

1900 Schmidt (Berlin) produces double horn with thumb-operated piston for the change from F to B-Flat (M-P, 51)

1902 Kruspe builds full double horn (H, 35)

1903 valve horn becomes official inst. at Paris Conservatoire (H, 3)

1906 Alexander of Mainz builds their first double horn (H, 35)

1906 Villanelle by Paul Dukas

1906 Alexander builds Descant horn in high G with F crook (B, 226)

1912 D.J. Blaikley patents a piston-valve double horn (M-P, 51)

1913 Schoenberg scores 10 horns for choral symphony, the Gurrelieder 

1927 Double Concerto for horn and violin by Ethel Smyth - first major work for solo horn in the modern idiom (M-P, 148)

1930 Paris maker Thibouville-Lamy makes & markets French double horn (M-P, 51)

1939 Hindemith Horn Sonata

1939 Jack Cave is first horn player to appear and record with a jazz ensemble (Hill, 103)

1940s early use of horn in jazz in Claude Thornhill's orch. (D, 221)

1942 R. Strauss Concerto No. 2, Op. 86

1948-50 horn used in Mile's Davis's nonet in 'Birth of the Cool' period (D, 221)

1943 Britten Serenade for Tenor, Horn & Strings

1949 Hindemith Horn Concerto

1952 Hindemith Sonata for four horns

1960s Paxman makes first triple horn (T, 55)